Chances are, your one.com personalised email account is not the very first mailbox ever. If you have emails to take with you from another provider you’re using today, our email hosting platform will migrate them for you completely free of charge. This gives you the advantage of managing all your old emails in one interface, making multiple logins and passwords a thing of the past. Our built-in tool is really simple to use making the migration a doddle.
If you’re a startup or a small- to medium-sized business, iPage offers low-cost options that are great for small or growing companies on a budget. With your free domain name registration, you get hosting for unlimited domains and emails, plus $150 in free advertising credits, should you need to market a new website as well. The host’s email tools include webmail, autoresponders, email forwarding, and security features like SPAM filters and virus protection.
A dedicated server, or computing server, is a server where all the physical resources of the machine are available. Unlike a virtual server, which uses a portion of the resources to run its virtualisation technology, a dedicated server allows you to benefit from all of the machine’s available RAM, storage, and computing power. With cloud computing, we can also define this type of solution as "bare metal", highlighting the physical availability of the machine’s resources, in contrast to standard solutions based on virtual instances.
Setting up a business email address on your domain has lots of branding and administrative advantages. Think of your business email as a marketing tool – it’s likely the first impression your clients will get from you when you initiate contact. Using your domain in the email address means prospects and customers have an immediate reference point as to who you are and can search for your business online. By contrast, sending emails from a free email service such as Google or Yahoo will diminish your credibility and professionalism.
Most dedicated servers are packaged with a control panel. Control panels are often confused with management tools, but these control panels are actually web based automation tools created to help automate the process of web site creation and server management. Control panels should not be confused with a full server management solution by a dedicated hosting providers.
Just like the elephant, we never forget our customers. Easyspace owns and manages 10 of its very own Data centres throughout the UK. With multiple Tier 1 transit providers, dual power supplies, best of breed Cisco technology and support for fibre and copper gigabit connections, your dedicated server will be housed in one of the most secure and resilient data centres in the UK.
An email address such as [email protected] is made up of a local-part, an @ symbol, then a case-insensitive domain. Although the standard requires[1] the local part to be case-sensitive, it also urges that receiving hosts deliver messages in a case-independent fashion,[2] e.g., that the mail system at example.com treat John.Smith as equivalent to john.smith; some mail systems even treat them as equivalent to johnsmith.[3] Mail systems often limit their users' choice of name to a subset of the technically valid characters, and in some cases also limit which addresses it is possible to send mail to.
One stop shopping for getting a website up and running - get the name, register it, build the site and they host it, all in one spot. The builder tool is amazingly easy to use - so much easier than any of the others I have used! You get to do all the fun parts, and they take care of all the drudgery in the background. Great help videos and articles, and their phone customer support is just amazing - really nice peeps who know what they are doing, and take the time to make sure your tangles are straightened. Brilliant all the way around.
Dedicated server hosting gives you full power and total control over your server infrastructure. Built on the latest technology with enterprise-grade hardware, Dedicated Servers give your projects the highest levels of performance. Pick from the latest Intel Xeon processors and choose the resource levels for your project's demands, and with root access you have free choice of Windows and Linux operating systems.
Note that some mail servers wildcard local parts, typically the characters following a plus and less often the characters following a minus, so [email protected] and [email protected] might end up in the same inbox as [email protected] or even as [email protected] This can be useful for tagging emails for sorting, see below, and for spam control.[10] Braces { and } are also used in that fashion, although less often.[citation needed]

Some mail services support a tag included in the local-part, such that the address is an alias to a prefix of the local part. For example, the address [email protected] denotes the same delivery address as [email protected] RFC 5233,[15] refers to this convention as sub-addressing, but it is also known as plus addressing, tagged addressing or mail extensions.


There are many uses for a dedicated server: big data, machine learning, website and application hosting, backups and storage, infrastructure virtualisation, server clusters, business applications (CRM, ERP), and even online game hosting. This is why we offer several different dedicated server ranges, each of which are designed for a specific set of needs. Our sales and support teams will help you with your project, and can offer expert advice on which server to choose.
Alexandra Leslie’s interest in website administration was sparked in her teens, priming her for a fast-paced career in managing, building, and contributing to online brands, including HostingAdvice, Forbes, and the blogs of prominent hosting providers. She brings to the table firsthand experience in reviewing web hosts, perfecting website design, optimizing content, and walking site owners through the steps that add up to a successful online presence. Today, she combines her extensive writing experience with technical understanding to unpack some of the most complex topics that daunt novice website owners, as well as the subjects that excite veteran technologists within the HostingAdvice readership.
That's a big difference, with "inbox zero" requiring an email client with great archiving that works over multiple device types. Meanwhile, at the other end of the spectrum, the personal information managers need something more like Microsoft Outlook, with excellent search capabilities as well as a good storage contract on the hosting side because these types of inboxes are often tens of gigabytes (GB) per user.

Within 24 hrs, the invoice was updated to me by email which I thought was sent by him because that email was sent in the same thread that we used to use with my supplier. The invoice looks exactly the same with the first except the bank account mentioned inside them are different. However, I didn’t notice that and transfered the money to the account of the fraudster.
If you have purchased domain names that you no longer need, you can sell them through Namecheap. When you are ready to sell, you can list your domain in our Marketplace for a fixed price. We will add your domains to our searchable list, visited by thousands of people every day. When you buy domain names from Namecheap, we guarantee the best available support from managing, to selling, to renewals.

Things are probably more complicated than that, though. As a recent survey conducted by market research firm Statista clearly shows, email is one of the most popular apps for mobile devices across most organizations and even consumers. Given how many workflows, business processes, and just plain important communications take place over email, this is one area where you likely shouldn't skimp.


At IONOS, we always strive to offer our products at competitive price levels - for all customers. However, due to the sheer size of our product portfolio, we cannot guarantee to have the best price available for all products, all the time. Instead, we focus on a selected range of domain extensions which are frequently sought after by our customers, such as a .com, and provide those domain names to you using a very aggressive price point.
Line speed, billed on the 95th percentile, refers to the speed in which data flows from the server or device, measured every 5 minutes for the month, and dropping the top 5% of measurements that are highest, and basing the usage for the month on the next-highest measurement. This is similar to a median measurement, which can be thought of as a 50th percentile measurement (with 50% of measurements above, and 50% of measurements below), whereas this sets the cutoff at 95th percentile, with 5% of measurements above the value, and 95% of measurements below the value. This is also known as Burstable billing. Line speed is measured in bits per second (or kilobits per second, megabits per second or gigabits per second).

Our aim is to keep our servers clean from malware, phishing, and other malicious activities posing threat to Internet users. It does not mean that we judge before knowing you, but today's reality is that we can not predict intentions of every user who signs up. In order to prevent misuse of our services we had to apply certain limitations to free hosting accounts. In turn our servers are never blacklisted so you can always expect your email message to reach it's recipient, and Internet users to reach your website.
Running in-house email servers does provide more control and wider customization as well as tracking and compliance for small to midsize businesses (SMB). But they require specialized on-site IT staff as well as the need to manually manage and support both hardware and software. A third-party hosted email service matches many of the advantages of in-house email without the expensive initial investment. The ability to manage the number of users, access the latest security protocols, and enjoy ease of connectivity and deployment of hosted solutions makes it a viable and competitive option.
Even if you’re not running a burgeoning business, there’s the personal branding component to what an email host can offer. Maybe you’re a graduate student building your personal portfolio and publishing your resumé online when your realize Corporate Hiring Managers are less likely to respond to [email protected] Wouldn’t it be nice to reach out from [email protected] instead? Or maybe you’re establishing a side biz to bring in some extra cash. Would you rather folks considering you for freelance work reach out to [email protected] or [email protected]?
If unlimited domains, email, and storage light up your board, iPage is your best bet. As you’re setting up your custom email address at your new (free) domain, you can take advantage of email forwarding tools, autoresponders, SPAM filtering, and virus protection. Therefore, iPage’s service is our top pick for unlimited resources and irreplaceable value in an email host.
An example here is the rapidly growing trend of "inbox zero." It's actually known by a variety of names, but it refers to the practice of keeping your email inbox count at zero stored emails. Essentially, it's dealing with every email as it comes in and then deleting or archiving each one so that your inbox is always empty. This boils down to a fundamental shift in how users are utilizing their email inboxes.
Even if you’re not running a burgeoning business, there’s the personal branding component to what an email host can offer. Maybe you’re a graduate student building your personal portfolio and publishing your resumé online when your realize Corporate Hiring Managers are less likely to respond to [email protected] Wouldn’t it be nice to reach out from [email protected] instead? Or maybe you’re establishing a side biz to bring in some extra cash. Would you rather folks considering you for freelance work reach out to [email protected] or [email protected]?
Buying a cheap domain name does not limit your ability to be successful online. In fact, the hundreds of new domain extensions now available provides you with more opportunities to create a strong online presence. Choosing the right cheap domain can be a way to communicate your website’s purpose and your creativity, innovation, and even customer service to online visitors. A book club, for example, could use a .club domain name to bring members together online. Online stores might want to look into .shop, while IT firms should consider .tech domains. In short, there are NUMEROUS possibilities, and the smart selection of a cheap domain name can lead to creative marketing opportunities and strong user engagement.
If you’re a startup or a small- to medium-sized business, iPage offers low-cost options that are great for small or growing companies on a budget. With your free domain name registration, you get hosting for unlimited domains and emails, plus $150 in free advertising credits, should you need to market a new website as well. The host’s email tools include webmail, autoresponders, email forwarding, and security features like SPAM filters and virus protection.
Forwarded email addresses are sometimes called “aliases”. An alias, as you know, is another name that refers to a given person. In our example, John has an email address with gmail—[email protected] He has just purchased the domain name widgets.com and sets up a forwarding rule which “reads”: Whenever an email comes in to [email protected], forward that email to [email protected] In this case, the address [email protected] is an “alias” for [email protected], as all email goes to the same Gmail address.
That has interesting implications: it means you can control what email gets downloaded when by having more than one account. I could separate askleo.com into two accounts, for example: one for the email addresses I want to pay attention to quickly, and the other for things that aren’t as critical. You could also segregate email based on which address it was sent to, which is what I do with my askleo.com email.
If unlimited domains, email, and storage light up your board, iPage is your best bet. As you’re setting up your custom email address at your new (free) domain, you can take advantage of email forwarding tools, autoresponders, SPAM filtering, and virus protection. Therefore, iPage’s service is our top pick for unlimited resources and irreplaceable value in an email host.
To create your custom email with one.com, you’ll first need to buy a domain name and hosting plan. Choose the right domain name for your business using our domain search. Once your order is active, you can log in to the control panel and click on the "Email" tile. From here, you’ll be able to create and manage email accounts as well as email aliases. You can also set up any forwarding email addresses you require.
Despite the wide range of special characters which are technically valid, organisations, mail services, mail servers and mail clients in practice often do not accept all of them. For example, Windows Live Hotmail only allows creation of email addresses using alphanumerics, dot (.), underscore (_) and hyphen (-).[11] Common advice is to avoid using some special characters to avoid the risk of rejected emails.[12]
While most businesses will have such suites in place, it often falls to the email service to provide an additional layer of anti-phishing and anti-malware protection. Our reviews found a surprising variance in this department, however, ranging from very robust to completely non-existent, so be careful. Since it's such a huge liability for business owners, this could be one of the most important factors in terms of background features. At the very least, it's better than filing an insurance claim or outright losing funds due to simple social engineering tactics.
It’s pretty much common knowledge that Gmail is awesome. It’s fast, connects seamlessly with the rest of your Google services such as Drive, has a cool app called Inbox, and is overall an extremely powerful email service. However, to use it with a custom domain, you need to purchase Google Apps for either $5 or $10/month, which for casual users is a bit unnecessary. On top of that, you don’t even get all of the features a personal account gets, e.g. Inbox.
The transmission of electronic mail within the Internet uses the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP), defined in RFC 5321 and 5322, and extensions like RFC 6531. The mailboxes may be accessed and managed by users with the Post Office Protocol (POP) or the Internet Message Access Protocol (IMAP) with email client software that runs on a personal computer, mobile device, or with webmail systems that render the messages on a screen or on paper printouts.
Probably not. Many cheap domains are available at a great price due to a sale or special offer on first-year registration. Our C$1.31 domain name offers are often limited to one year, with successive years billed at the regular rate. That said, there are other great ways to buy cheap domain names from GoDaddy while keeping the price low (and affordable!) in the future.
A dedicated hosting service, dedicated server, or managed hosting service is a type of Internet hosting in which the client leases an entire server not shared with anyone else. This is more flexible than shared hosting, as organizations have full control over the server(s), including choice of operating system, hardware, etc. There is also another level of dedicated or managed hosting commonly referred to as complex managed hosting. Complex Managed Hosting applies to both physical dedicated servers, Hybrid server and virtual servers, with many companies choosing a hybrid (combination of physical and virtual) hosting solution. There are many similarities between standard and complex managed hosting but the key difference is the level of administrative and engineering support that the customer pays for – owing to both the increased size and complexity of the infrastructure deployment. The provider steps in to take over most of the management, including security, memory, storage and IT support. The service is primarily proactive in nature.[1] Server administration can usually be provided by the hosting company as an add-on service. In some cases a dedicated server can offer less overhead and a larger return on investment. Dedicated servers are hosted in data centers, often providing redundant power sources and HVAC systems. In contrast to colocation, the server hardware is owned by the provider and in some cases they will provide support for operating systems or applications.[citation needed]
That has interesting implications: it means you can control what email gets downloaded when by having more than one account. I could separate askleo.com into two accounts, for example: one for the email addresses I want to pay attention to quickly, and the other for things that aren’t as critical. You could also segregate email based on which address it was sent to, which is what I do with my askleo.com email.

Your choice of server operating system will most likely come down to which tools you prefer to use. For example, if you want to build websites with WordPress or you need to use advanced scripting like Ruby or Python, Linux is usually the best option. But if your project requires ASP.NET or other Microsoft-based technologies, you should probably select Windows.
For users drowning in the flow of incoming email, one.com email offers a seamless integration with Sanebox, an advanced sorting tool to help you declutter your mailbox automatically. Its powerful algorithms go beyond spam filtering to recognize and classify different email types, so you see the most critical messages first. Here are 4 ways how Sanebox makes email management easy.
In the simplest terms, the email domain is the web address that comes after the @ symbol in an email address. For example, in [email protected], “company.com” is the email domain. These follow particular constraints, and unlike the email prefix (the area in front of the @ symbol) can’t be  easily modified for vanity. The email domain must match the requirements of the host name. It should consist only of letters, digits, hyphens and dots.
Yes. If you currently have a VPS hosting account with us, you can upgrade to our dedicated hosting at any time by ordering a new server. For fully managed customers, we will migrate your data from your current account to your new server. You can also upgrade either your VPS or your dedicated server with Premium DNS, which improves both your security and performance.
Things are probably more complicated than that, though. As a recent survey conducted by market research firm Statista clearly shows, email is one of the most popular apps for mobile devices across most organizations and even consumers. Given how many workflows, business processes, and just plain important communications take place over email, this is one area where you likely shouldn't skimp.
Chances are, your one.com personalised email account is not the very first mailbox ever. If you have emails to take with you from another provider you’re using today, our email hosting platform will migrate them for you completely free of charge. This gives you the advantage of managing all your old emails in one interface, making multiple logins and passwords a thing of the past. Our built-in tool is really simple to use making the migration a doddle.
It is also necessary to study email alternatives as part of your email service setup plan. Email is the standard way to communicate and it is familiar to most users, but it isn't always the most effective or expedient method. Email can be slow, result in delayed responses, and messages are rarely read to completion. Because of this, many businesses require additional "collaboration" tools, that various email services also include, in order to fill the communication gap more effectively.
The format of email addresses is [email protected] where the local part may be up to 64 octets long and the domain may have a maximum of 255 octets.[4] The formal definitions are in RFC 5322 (sections 3.2.3 and 3.4.1) and RFC 5321—with a more readable form given in the informational RFC 3696[5] and the associated errata. Note that unlike the syntax of RFC 1034,[6] and RFC 1035[7] there is no trailing period in the domain name.
Despite the wide range of special characters which are technically valid, organisations, mail services, mail servers and mail clients in practice often do not accept all of them. For example, Windows Live Hotmail only allows creation of email addresses using alphanumerics, dot (.), underscore (_) and hyphen (-).[11] Common advice is to avoid using some special characters to avoid the risk of rejected emails.[12]
Hard disk drives, or HDDs, are traditional storage devices that use spinning disks to house data. Solid-state drives, or SSDs, store data on microchips instead, so they can load that data much quicker. NVMe stands for Non-Volatile Memory Express, and is the latest, fastest technology that SSDs use to access data. If you need faster data read and write speeds, you should choose SSD storage, perhaps with NVMe for the very best performance. If, however, overall data capacity is a higher priority, an HDD server can still offer outstanding performance and value.
One great way to protect data is by using email encryption. This feature can do wonders for protecting your organization's privacy and that of your employees, but it demands some investigation when you're selecting your provider. Is it built-in or do you require a third-party tool? Does it use common standards that the recipient can process? What about Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) certificates? Are they included or do they need to be purchased separately? The best-in-class tools will not only make encryption easy for anybody to configure and use, buy they'll also make it easy for you to understand pre-purchase.
Ultimately, it boils down to a balance between cost, features, and risk. It's always tempting to simply jump on the lowest-cost solution, but the fact that email is ubiquitous keeps this from being the smart play. It's nearly impossible to escape using it, which means your users, your customers, and the guts of your business have all come to depend on it in different ways. You need to discover those ways, evaluate them, and then choose a service that either meets or improves on them. This takes time, discussion with your IT staff, and some investigation; these are steps you don't want to skip. Otherwise, you'll pay for it later.
Only when I checked with my supplier after a week of my transfer, I realized I was cheated by a fraudster. When I check the emails, I find out that the email used by the fraudster is a completely different email address than my supplier’s email address. It has never been involved in the whole thread until the fake invoice was sent. But my supplier said that that email address was very much similar to email address of his daughter except his daughter ‘s email contain an extra zero in it.
If you're looking for the best email hosting service -- one that is super easy, cheap, and 100% dependable -- you're in the right place. Our team signed up for accounts with all the popular email hosts and tested each based on reliability, security, ease of use, and more. We were pleased to discover that several offer free, unlimited email addresses; free webmail; and free auto-responders with their plans. See below for our picks of the best email hosting services:
When you build a website, you want visitors to come and see what you've done. To get them there, you need a unique domain name that connects to your sites servers. Domain name registration is required to ensure that no one else in the world can claim ownership of your web site's address and to make finding your website simple. Find your one of a kind domain name.

Above all else, we strive to deliver outstanding customer experiences. When you buy a domain name from Namecheap, we guarantee it will be handed over to you with superior standards of service and support. Our primary goal is to build a customer-focused atmosphere filled with the happiest customers in the galaxy. The Namecheap guarantee is our mark of excellence.


I didn't think I'd be able to do all of this web site stuff myself, but I wanted to try to save our small business some money. Tommie walked me through the process, educating us on the right products for our business and putting up with my endless questions. He made me feel like he cared about our business and seemed excited about bringing us into the 21st century. :-) He also has quite the singing voice. I now have his version of Adele's "Hello" and Journey's "Don't Stop Believing" in my head. While I'm not overly grateful for those memories, I am grateful for his patience and expertise. Thanks, Tommie!
Think of the name you want to register. The answer is typically your company or website name. It is best to keep your domain name short and easy to understand. Say it out loud, and make sure it sounds great. Next, search to see if it is available. If the name you desire is taken with the .com top-level domain, there are hundreds of others available. Finally, add the top choices to your cart and complete the domain registration.
A personalised email address on your domain like [email protected] increases the value and perception of the professionality of your business to customers and prospects. While free email services offered by Google, Yahoo, etc. are fine for personal use, a custom email address will prove that you are a professional or legitimate business. If you already have a hosting plan with one.com, your personalised email address comes as part of the hosting package completely free of charge.
To build a lasting relationship with your customers and to be taken seriously, it’s also crucial to protect your customers’ data and provide secure experiences. Unlike free unbranded services, your professional email address at one.com comes with built-in spam and virus protection that secures your mail against spamming and malware attacks. Never be the source of your customers’ discomfort.
Before registering a domain, it is necessary to choose your desired name. That is the most crucial step. Once you have done so, you can use the domain check at the top of this page to help you find out, if your website address is available or if it is already in use. In case all your preferred names are already under management, you can choose a completely new one or try another extension.
I find it really annoying that people who used to check their email regularly, now leave large intervals between accessing their messages. This seems to be a social media thing where they’re all busy putting up their lunch pictures etc. etc. up for ‘everyone’ to see. Unfortunately this behaviour seems to be spilling over to the less conscientious in their work activities and they seem to be treating digital mail with contempt in some cases. Guess it’s back to paper mail and ‘snail’ delivery – not that that always gets the attention it deserves.

I find it really annoying that people who used to check their email regularly, now leave large intervals between accessing their messages. This seems to be a social media thing where they’re all busy putting up their lunch pictures etc. etc. up for ‘everyone’ to see. Unfortunately this behaviour seems to be spilling over to the less conscientious in their work activities and they seem to be treating digital mail with contempt in some cases. Guess it’s back to paper mail and ‘snail’ delivery – not that that always gets the attention it deserves.
Many dedicated server providers include a service level agreement based on network up-time. Some dedicated server hosting providers offer a 100% up-time guarantee on their network. By securing multiple vendors for connectivity and using redundant hardware, providers are able to guarantee higher up-times; usually between 99-100% up-time if they are a higher quality provider. One aspect of higher quality providers is they are most likely to be multi-homed across multiple quality up-link providers, which in turn, provides significant redundancy in the event one goes down in addition to potentially improved routes to destinations.
Even businesses with dedicated on-site IT staff have seen the wisdom of moving their email service. The advantages include per-person cost averages, cutting-edge security, cheap email storage, and simple ease of connectivity and deployment. While these advantages hold true for most organizations, there are not only exceptions but also hidden "gotchas" you should look for before selecting a cloud-hosted email provider.
Hosted email often comes as part of another service, such as web hosting or Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS). Since that means there will be many extras available with these services, it's inescapable that you'll be paying for those extras in some way. Purchasing them usually means a slight uptick in that per-user price. Many businesses find that, once they're done selecting all of their needed "optional extras," their end price can often reach as high as $10 or more per user. This can start to add up for larger teams. It's somewhat like buying cable service: sometimes you need to pay for the channels you don't want to get the couple of channels that you need. There is also the old adage that "you get what you pay for" when it comes to quality. This is almost always true when considering an email host.
Formal and informal standards: RFC 3696 provides specific advice for validating Internet identifiers, including email addresses. Some websites instead attempt to evaluate the validity of email addresses through arbitrary standards, such as by rejecting addresses containing valid characters, such as + and /, or enforcing arbitrary length limitations. Email address internationalization provides for a much larger range of characters than many current validation algorithms allow, such as all Unicode characters above U+0080, encoded as UTF-8.
Additionally, there are a few ways to improve the security of the visitors coming to your website. An SSL wildcard certificate comes with every domain. If you would like to know more about our SSL certificates, check out our product specs. Shortly, we will be introducing the Domain Guard in order for you to be able to protect yourself from DNS hijacking.  

No. At GoDaddy, we are upfront about pricing. If we advertise cheap domain registration for C$1.31 or C$13.19 for the first year, then that’s the price you can expect to pay. While many customers choose to purchase additional products to grow their online presence, you are not required to buy other products to complete registration for a cheap domain name. If you are taking advantage of a special domain offer or first-year registration pricing, you will be notified about the limitations of the offer and future pricing changes at the time of purchase.
In practice, the form validation of some web sites may reject special characters such as "+" in an email address – treating them, incorrectly, as invalid characters. This can lead to an incorrect user receiving an e-mail if the "+" is silently stripped by a website without any warning or error messages. For example, an email intended for the user-entered email address [email protected] could be incorrectly sent to [email protected] In other cases a poor user experience can occur if some parts of a site, such as a user registration page, allow the "+" character whilst other parts, such as a page for unsubscribing from a site's mailing list, do not.

It’s pretty much common knowledge that Gmail is awesome. It’s fast, connects seamlessly with the rest of your Google services such as Drive, has a cool app called Inbox, and is overall an extremely powerful email service. However, to use it with a custom domain, you need to purchase Google Apps for either $5 or $10/month, which for casual users is a bit unnecessary. On top of that, you don’t even get all of the features a personal account gets, e.g. Inbox.
The IETF's EAI Working group published RFC 6530 "Overview and Framework for Internationalized Email", which enabled non-ASCII characters to be used in both the local-parts and domain of an email address. RFC 6530 provides for email based on the UTF-8 encoding, which permits the full repertoire of Unicode. RFC 6531 provides a mechanism for SMTP servers to negotiate transmission of the SMTPUTF8 content.
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